Anxiety is a feeling of unease, such as worry or fear, that can be mild or severe.
Everyone has feelings of anxiety at some point in their life. For example, you may feel worried and anxious about sitting an exam, or having a medical test or job interview.
During times like these, feeling anxious can be perfectly normal.
But some people find it hard to control their worries. Their feelings of anxiety are more constant and can often affect their daily lives.
Anxiety is the main symptom of several conditions, including:
- panic disorder
- phobias, such as agoraphobia or claustrophobia
- post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
The information in this section is about a specific condition called generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
GAD is a long-term condition that causes you to feel anxious about a wide range of situations and issues, rather than 1 specific event.
People with GAD feel anxious most days and often struggle to remember the last time they felt relaxed.
As soon as 1 anxious thought is resolved, another may appear about a different issue.
Symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD)
GAD can cause both psychological (mental) and physical symptoms.
These vary from person to person, but can include:
When to get help for anxiety
Although feelings of anxiety at certain times are completely normal, see a GP if anxiety is affecting your daily life or causing you distress.
Your GP will ask about your symptoms and your worries, fears and emotions to find out if you could have GAD.
What causes GAD?
The exact cause of GAD is not fully understood, although it's likely that a combination of several factors plays a role.
Research has suggested that these may include:
- overactivity in areas of the brain involved in emotions and behaviour
- an imbalance of the brain chemicals serotonin and noradrenaline, which are involved in the control and regulation of mood
- the genes you inherit from your parents - you're estimated to be 5 times more likely to develop GAD if you have a close relative with the condition
- having a history of stressful or traumatic experiences, such as domestic violence, child abuse or bullying
- having a painful long-term health condition, such as arthritis
- having a history of drug or alcohol misuse
But many people develop GAD for no apparent reason.
How generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is treated
GAD can have a significant effect on your daily life, but several different treatments are available that can ease your symptoms.
- psychological therapies - you can get psychological therapies like cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on the NHS; you do not need a referral from a GP and you can refer yourself for psychological therapies service in your area
- medicine - such as a type of antidepressant called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
With treatment, many people are able to control their anxiety levels. But some treatments may need to be continued for a long time and there may be periods when your symptoms worsen.
Self-help for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD)
There are also many things you can do yourself to help reduce your anxiety, such as:
- going on a self-help course
- exercising regularly
- stopping smoking
- cutting down on the amount of alcohol and caffeine you drink