Condoms are the only type of contraception that can both prevent pregnancy and protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
There are two types of condoms: male condoms, worn on the penis; and female condoms, worn inside the vagina.
This page is about male condoms, and explains how they work and where you can get them.
Male condoms are made from very thin latex (rubber), polyisoprene or polyurethane and are designed to stop a man's semen from coming into contact with his sexual partner.
At a glance
- When used correctly every time you have sex, male condoms are 98% effective. This means 2 out of 100 women will become pregnant in one year when male condoms are used as contraception.
- You can get free condoms from contraception clinics, sexual health clinics and some GP surgeries.
- Oil-based products - such as moisturiser, lotion and Vaseline - can damage latex and polyisoprene condoms, but they are safe to use with polyurethane condoms.
- Water-based lubricant is safe to use with all condoms.
- It's possible for a condom to slip off during sex. If this happens, you may need emergency contraception and to get checked for STIs.
- Condoms need to be stored in places that aren't too hot or cold, and away from sharp or rough surfaces that could tear them or wear them away.
- Putting on a condom can be an enjoyable part of sex and doesn't have to feel like an interruption.
- If you're sensitive to latex, you can use polyurethane or polyisoprene condoms instead.
- A condom must not be used more than once. Use a new one each time you have sex.
- Condoms have a use-by date on the packaging. Don't use out-of-date condoms.
- Always use condoms that have the BSI kite mark and the CE mark on the packet. This means they've been tested to high safety standards.
How a condom works
Condoms are a "barrier" method of contraception. They are made of very thin latex (rubber), polyurethane or polyisoprene and are designed to prevent pregnancy by stopping sperm from meeting an egg.
They can also protect against STIs if used correctly during vaginal, anal and oral sex.
Make sure that a man's penis does not touch a woman's vagina before a condom has been put on - semen can come out of the penis before a man has fully ejaculated (come).
If this happens, or if semen gets into the vagina while using a condom, you may need emergency contraception. You should also consider having an STI test.
How to use a condom
- Take the condom out of the packet, being careful not to tear it with jewellery or fingernails. Do not open the packet with your teeth.
- Place the condom over the tip of the erect penis.
- If there's a teat on the end of the condom, use your thumb and forefinger to squeeze the air out of it.
- Gently roll the condom down to the base of the penis.
- If the condom won't roll down, you may be holding it the wrong way round. If this happens, it may have sperm on it, so throw it away and try again with a new one.
- After sex, withdraw the penis while it's still erect - hold the condom on at the base of the penis while you do this.
- Remove the condom from the penis, being careful not to spill any semen.
- Throw the condom away in a bin, not down the toilet.
- Make sure the man's penis does not touch his partner's genital area again.
- If you have sex again, use a new condom.
Condoms come lubricated to make them easier to use, but you may also like to use additional lubricant (lube). This is particularly advised for anal sex to reduce the chance of the condom splitting.
You can use any type of lubricant with polyurethane condoms that aren't made of latex. However, if you're using latex or polyisoprene condoms, don't use oil-based lubricants - such as lotion, body oil or petroleum jelly (Vaseline) - because they can damage the condom and make it more likely to split.
Condoms with spermicide
Some condoms come with spermicide on them. You should avoid using this type, or using spermicide as a lubricant, as it doesn't protect against STIs and may increase your risk of infection.
Who can use condoms?
Most people can safely use condoms, but they may not be the most suitable method of contraception for everyone.
- Some men and women are allergic to latex condoms. If this is a problem, polyurethane or polyisoprene condoms are less likely to cause an allergic reaction.
- Men who have difficulty keeping an erection may not be able to use condoms because the penis must be erect to prevent semen from leaking or the condom slipping off.
Advantages and disadvantages of condoms
Some advantages of using condoms:
- When used correctly and consistently, they are a reliable method of preventing pregnancy.
- They help to protect both partners from STIs, including chlamydia, gonorrhoea and HIV.
- You only need to use them when you have sex - they do not need advance preparation and are suitable for unplanned sex.
- In most cases, there are no medical side effects from using condoms.
- They are easy to get hold of and come in a variety of shapes, sizes and flavours.
Some disadvantages include:
- Some couples find that using condoms interrupts sex - to get around this, try to make using a condom part of foreplay.
- Condoms are very strong but may split or tear if not used properly. If this happens to you, practice putting them on so you get used to using them.
- Some people may be allergic to latex, plastic or spermicides, but you can get condoms that are less likely to cause an allergic reaction.
- When using a condom, the man has to pull out after he has ejaculated and before his penis goes soft, holding the condom firmly in place.
Can anything make condoms less effective?
Sperm can sometimes get into the vagina during sex, even when using a condom. This may happen if:
- the penis touches the area around the vagina before a condom is put on
- the condom splits or comes off
- the condom gets damaged by sharp fingernails or jewellery
- you use oil-based lubricants, such as lotion, baby oil or petroleum jelly, with latex or polyisoprene condoms - this damages the condom
- you are using medication for conditions like thrush, such as creams, pessaries or suppositories - this can damage latex and polyisoprene condoms, and stop them working properly
If you think sperm has entered the vagina, you may need emergency contraception. You can use emergency contraception up to five days after unprotected sex (when sperm entered the vagina).
You should also consider having an STI test. You can go to a:
- sexual health clinic
- contraception clinic
- young person's clinic
You can use another form of contraception, such as the contraceptive pill or implant, for extra protection against pregnancy.
However, other forms of contraception won't protect you against STIs. You'll still be at risk of STIs if the condom breaks.
Where to get condoms
You can get condoms for free, even if you're under 16, from:
- contraception clinics
- sexual health or GUM (genitourinary medicine) clinics
- some GP surgeries
- some young people's services
You can also buy condoms from:
- mail-order catalogues
- vending machines in some public toilets
- some petrol stations
Always buy condoms that carry the BSI kite mark and the European CE mark. This means they have been tested to the required safety standards.
If you're under 16 years old
Contraception services are free and confidential, including for people under the age of 16.
If you're under 16 and want contraception, the doctor, nurse or pharmacist won't tell your parents (or carer) as long as they believe you fully understand the information you're given and the decisions you're making.
Doctors and nurses work under strict guidelines when dealing with people under 16. They'll encourage you to consider telling your parents, but they won't make you.
The only time a professional might want to tell someone else is if they believe you're at risk of harm, such as abuse. The risk would need to be serious, and they would usually discuss this with you first.